A wide variety of npk fertilizer and prices options are available to you, such as compound fertilizer, organic fertilizer. We had most observations on non-subsidized prices for Ethiopia (2045), Nigeria (1135), Malawi (1142), Tanzania (515), and Mali (386) due to the large sample of fertilizer users in the LSMS data for these countries (in addition to the Africa Fertilizer data available for two of these countries). Urea was most expensive in three landlocked countries (Burundi: 1.51, Uganda: 1.49, and Burkina Faso: 1.49 USD kg-1). For Malawi, the prediction of the best-performing model is shown (Africa Fertilizer). A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the low usage of inorganic fertilizer in SSA: (a) on many African soils, crops do not respond well to fertilizer, perhaps because of a low soil organic matter content or soil degradation [8, 9, 10, 11, 12]; (b) farmers are not aware of, or do not believe in the utility of inorganic fertilizer [13, 14, 15]; (c) farmers have a cash-flow problem, and need better access to credit to buy fertilizers [13, 16, 17]; (d) variability in rainfall makes it too risky to invest in fertilizers, and insurance programs may be needed to support fertilizer use [5, 18]; and (e) after accounting for agronomic responses to fertilizer; local input and output prices are such that fertilizer investments are insufficiently profitable for many farmers [18, 19, 20, 21]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.t003. It was low in Burkina Faso (0.96–1.04), Burundi (0.95–1.05), and Togo (0.94–1.05). km) Rural land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Food production index (2004-2006 = 100) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Download. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.g005. We only had local transportation cost data for Malawi and Nigeria; our results suggest that the additional costs were 2% and 5.8% of the total amount paid for the fertilizer. The “new” phosphorus fertilization guidelines for maize by FERTASA. Most of the variation is now between countries, instead of within countries. South Africa is a net importer of fertilizers. Different types of fertilizer are reported by LSMS and Africa Fertilizer depending on the country, e.g. Figure 2: Fertilizer consumption in South Africa, 2009 - 2018 Source: FERTASA urea, calcium ammonium nitrate, diammonium phosphate, and ‘NPK’ (in the case of LSMS without specifying the N, P or K content). The TPS model was implemented using the ‘Tps’ function in the R-package ‘fields’ [43] with only longitude and latitude as predictor variables. Made in South Africa Fertilizer Npk Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Fertilizer Npk from South Africa Fertilizer Npk Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com Predicted relative urea price (local price divided by the observed median national price) for areas with crop land in (a) Nigeria using Africa fertilizer data; (b) Nigeria using LSMS data. Chemical / Inorganic Granular NPK Bulk Blend 5:1:5 (36) - 20kg fertilizer bag This fertilizer can be.. R263.35 Ex Tax: R229.00 Add to Cart No, Is the Subject Area "Africa" applicable to this article? Low crop yields in Sub-Saharan Africa are associated with low fertilizer use. We retrieved 12659 observations of farmer-reported urea prices from LSMS and retained 10528 observations. We use no intercept because that gives a simple number that can be readily interpreted (the price of y is a*x). Many studies of technology profitability have assumed spatially-constant input and output prices (e.g., [26, 27]), which is at odds with rural economic reality. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.s001. The performance of the model that combined Africa Fertilizer and LSMS data was not as good as that of the individual models (ER: 0.12) (Table 3). As well as from npk, dap. Get result driven Liquid Fertilizer from Kynoch. While national level fertilizer prices may be available, we need to consider the extent to which prices vary within countries, reflecting transportation costs and other factors [22, 23, 24, 25]. However, elaborate Bayesian geostatistical approaches have been developed to estimate uncertainty in similar contexts (e.g., [61, 62]) and these methods could be applied to price data as well. At Omnia, we share a passion with our clients, which is to see things grow. The sizes of such sub-national units often vary widely, and the boundaries are somewhat arbitrary, and there may be strong unobserved price variation within such areas. Also, the implicit (0, 0) intercept should be correct for prices. The model built with LSMS data performed poorer than the model built with Africa Fertilizer data for Mali and Malawi (correlation coefficient for Mali: 0.08 vs 0.59 and Malawi: 0.28 vs 0.17 and ER for Mali: -0.03 vs 0.28 and Malawi: 0.02 vs 0.28). Jordan Chamberlin, Also, because of the relatively low sample size, some important agricultural regions within countries were not sampled, making the predictions for these regions highly uncertain. In this case, transportation cost (USD kg-1 of purchased fertilizer) by transportation type range between 0.01 to 0.05 USD kg- (Table 4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.g007. Population and rural population density estimates were measured in persons per km2 [35]. Most outliers were extreme prices: below 0.1 USD kg-1 or above 5 USD kg-1. And whether npk fertilizer and prices is quick, controlled, or slow. We propose that spatial price estimation methods such as the ones we employ here may serve for better approximating heterogeneous economic market landscapes, until such time as truly comprehensive local market price information systems become available. No, Is the Subject Area "Tanzania" applicable to this article? Areas of the provinces of South Africa 4 2. A specially developed kit of certified organic seeds suited to being grown throughout SA over summer. For most other countries, we had between 60 and 137 observations. No, Is the Subject Area "Crops" applicable to this article? Methodology, Yes A wide variety of npk fertilizer options are available to you, such as granular, liquid, and powder. From 2010 to 2018, countries in which Africa Fertilizer reported subsidized prices were: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, and Zambia (Table 2). LATEST NEWS. The chemical formula is variable (e.g. Aniruddha Ghosh and Travis J. Lybbert for helpful suggestions. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Nigeria was the only large country where the spatial prediction model did not perform well. The South African fertilizer industry manufactures a broad range of fertilizer products as compounds or mixtures which contain two or more of the Primary Macro plant nutrients Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) which are broadly referred to as NPK products. For the Africa Fertilizer data set, we fitted: (a) a liner regression model with no intercept between the prices for urea and the other fertilizer types, for locations where both the urea price and that of another type were reported; (b) the same linear regression models for each country separately; and (c) a liner regression model with no intercept between subsidized and non-subsidized urea prices, for each country separately. Our estimated prices can be adjusted when using them in computations for on-farm costs. In all the towns, subsidized prices were lower than non-subsidized prices. Description of NPK The NPK markings on the fertilizer describe the percentages of each of these nutrients as a ratio proportional to each other. We provide clients across the country (Gauteng, North West, Free State, Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga) with specially developed fertilizer products that meet their needs. Our work indicates new opportunities for incorporating spatial variation in prices into efforts to understand the profitability of agricultural technologies across rural areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Suppliers with verified business licenses. During the same period, the price of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers declined substantially due to very low demand globally. Formal analysis, The South African fertilizer market is very competitive, with a handful of national and regional operators. The coefficient of variation (CV) in prices was above 25% for Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. We did not use the data for Niger as the locations of the households were not provided, and there were only 13 households that reported a price for urea, which is our main focus in this paper. For example, evaluations of the returns to production technologies in developing country settings have often assumed spatially invariant input and output prices (e.g., [26, 27]) or modeled spatial variation in prices based on assumptions about price variation as a function of distance to markets (e.g. It contains 46% N, and no other plant nutrients. It is important to note that cross-validation results may be inflated for such regions because, on average, model skill should decrease with the distance from a location to locations with known prices (cf., [63]). In Rwanda and Malawi, the fertilizer subsidy program may also be lowering the variation and complicating the pattern of spatial price variation. However, the spatial prediction of the combined model could be more realistic mostly in the south-east where no data from Africa Fertilizer was reported (Fig 8). Compounds are chemically processed to have all the specified units in one granule, while blends are a physical mixture of different minerals and nutrients in customized proportions. Rwanda), and thus one might not expect as much spatial price variation. Gauteng, South Africa. [NH4NO3 + CaCO3 * MgCO3]) but in general it contains 8% of Ca and 21–27% of N as [NO3-] and [NH4+]. SGS is a global leader in fertilizer analysis and fertilizer testing. Possible factors influencing this pattern could be that: market prices in areas with higher demand are lower [46, 47, 27]. here. However, it is worth noting that these price data are only collected in towns and may not reflect the likely higher prices in more isolated rural areas. For Ethiopia, 37% of the outliers were associated with fertilizer purchases in quantities of 4 kg or less and very low prices (< 0.1 USD kg-1). The amount of sub-national price variation, and the performance of our interpolation models, differs strongly across countries in our sample. For the regional model, there were many more samples in the countries for which we had LSMS data. Sichuan Luobu New Material Technology Co., Ltd. Luancheng Kewo Compost Processing Factory. 5%. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Urea price was lower than DAP in most of the countries, but it was higher in Burundi and Malawi. The slope of the regression models between subsidized and non-subsidized prices varied from 0.18 to 0.78 USD kg-1 with a mean of 0.61 ± 0.19 USD kg-1 (Fig 1). Thank you. [24, 28, 29]). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227764.g009. Prices are for 25 kg or 50 kg bags and expressed in the national currency. It is important to know the price at the farmgate which includes the costs of the fertilizer per se plus the cost of reaching the market to get the product. Therefore, we also used Thin Plate Splines (TPS) to create smooth surfaces. Subsidized urea price (median-USD kg-1), percentage of the non-subsidized urea price, and number of observations per country (values between parenthesis). Access -50, -100, and -250: travel time (hours) to the nearest town with over 50,000 inhabitants, over 100,000 inhabitants, and over 250,000 inhabitants. Number of observations (n) and estimated slope coefficient. 1.70. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding acquisition, broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Our fertilisers are available in easy to apply formats. 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